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How the 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP with CD in I-P and SI Editions Can Help You Improve Your HVAC&R Skills and Knowledge



2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP Includes CD In IP And SI Editions Ashrae Handbook 34




If you are a professional or a student in the fields of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration (HVAC&R), or related disciplines, you probably have heard of ASHRAE and its publications. ASHRAE is a global society that advances human well-being through sustainable technology for the built environment. One of its most valuable and widely used resources is the ASHRAE Handbook, a comprehensive reference that covers the fundamentals and applications of HVAC&R systems and equipment.




2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP Includes CD In IP And SI Editions Ashrae Handbook 34


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Introduction




In this article, we will introduce you to the 2017 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP, which includes a CD-ROM that contains both IP (inch-pound) and SI (International System) units. We will explain what ASHRAE is, what the ASHRAE Handbook is, what are the benefits of using it, and how you can access it. We will also give you an overview of the main topics covered in the 2017 edition, as well as some highlights of the new and updated content that you can find in it.


What is ASHRAE?




ASHRAE stands for American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. It was founded in 1894 as a merger of two engineering societies: the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers (ASHVE) and the American Society of Refrigerating Engineers (ASRE). Today, ASHRAE has more than 57,000 members from over 132 countries, who work in various sectors such as industry, academia, government, research, consulting, and design.


ASHRAE's mission is to serve humanity by advancing the arts and sciences of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration and their allied fields. To achieve this mission, ASHRAE engages in various activities such as developing standards and guidelines, conducting research projects, organizing conferences and workshops, publishing books and journals, providing education and training programs, and promoting public awareness and advocacy.


What is the ASHRAE Handbook?




The ASHRAE Handbook is a four-volume series that covers the fundamentals and applications of HVAC&R systems and equipment. It is published every year, with one volume updated each year on a four-year cycle. The four volumes are:



  • Fundamentals: This volume covers the basic principles and data for HVAC&R design and practice. It includes topics such as psychrometrics, thermodynamics, fluid flow, heat transfer, indoor environmental quality, load calculations, energy efficiency, sustainability, and more.



  • HVAC Systems and Equipment: This volume covers the selection, design, operation, and maintenance of HVAC systems and equipment. It includes topics such as air distribution, hydronic distribution, refrigeration systems, cooling towers, heat pumps, boilers, furnaces, fans, pumps, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, filters, ducts, pipes, valves, controls, and more.



  • HVAC Applications: This volume covers the design and operation of HVAC systems for various types of buildings and facilities. It includes topics such as residential buildings, commercial buildings, industrial buildings, health care facilities, educational facilities, laboratories, data centers, museums, libraries, sports facilities, transportation facilities, agricultural facilities, and more.



  • Refrigeration: This volume covers the fundamentals and applications of refrigeration systems and equipment. It includes topics such as refrigerants, refrigeration cycles, compressors, condensers, evaporators, expansion devices, refrigeration load calculations, refrigeration system design, food preservation and processing, cold storage and distribution, ice making and skating rinks, low-temperature applications, and more.



The ASHRAE Handbook is written by experts in the field who volunteer their time and expertise to share their knowledge and experience with the HVAC&R community. The content is reviewed and updated regularly by ASHRAE technical committees to reflect the latest developments and best practices in the industry. The ASHRAE Handbook is widely recognized as the authoritative source of information for HVAC&R professionals and students worldwide.


What are the benefits of the ASHRAE Handbook?




The ASHRAE Handbook offers many benefits to its users. Some of them are:



  • It provides comprehensive and reliable information on HVAC&R fundamentals and applications that can help you design, install, operate, and maintain HVAC&R systems and equipment efficiently and effectively.



  • It helps you stay updated with the latest technologies and innovations in the HVAC&R field that can improve your performance and competitiveness.



  • It helps you comply with the relevant codes and standards that regulate the HVAC&R industry and ensure safety, quality, and sustainability.



  • It helps you enhance your professional development and education by offering valuable insights and guidance from experts in the field.



  • It helps you solve problems and challenges that you may encounter in your daily work by providing practical examples and case studies.



Overview of the 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP




In this section, we will give you an overview of the 2017 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP, which includes a CD-ROM that contains both IP (inch-pound) and SI (International System) units. We will explain what are the main topics covered in this edition, how it is different from previous editions, and how you can access it.


What are the main topics covered in the 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP?




The 2017 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP covers 39 chapters that span a wide range of topics related to HVAC&R fundamentals and applications. The chapters are organized into six sections:



  • General Engineering Information: This section covers topics such as units and symbols, conversion factors, mathematics, statistics, measurement and instruments, technical data and fundamentals, and codes and standards.



  • Basic Materials and Processes: This section covers topics such as thermophysical properties of materials, heat and moisture transfer through materials, sound and vibration, electrical properties of materials, chemical properties of materials, combustion and fuels, and indoor environmental health.



  • Load and Energy Calculations: This section covers topics such as climatic design information, design conditions, energy estimation and modeling, load calculation procedures, fenestration and solar energy utilization, ventilation and infiltration, cooling load factors, heating load factors, energy resources, building envelope analysis, energy auditing,



Fundamental Components: This section covers topics such as psychrometrics, thermodynamics and refrigeration cycles, fluid flow, access to all ASHRAE publications, including the ASHRAE Handbook, ASHRAE Journal, ASHRAE Transactions, ASHRAE Standards, ASHRAE Research Reports, and more. You can access the ASHRAE Technology Portal on your computer, tablet, smartphone, or other devices that support web browsers. You can also download the ASHRAE Handbook app on your mobile devices to access the handbook offline.


Highlights of the 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP




In this section, we will give you some highlights of the new and updated content that you can find in the 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP. We will focus on four chapters that cover some of the most important and relevant topics in the HVAC&R field: psychrometrics, thermodynamics and refrigeration cycles, fluid flow, and heat transfer. We will briefly summarize the main points and features of each chapter, as well as provide some examples and illustrations to help you understand them better.


Chapter 1: Psychrometrics




Psychrometrics is the study of the thermodynamic properties and processes of moist air. It is essential for HVAC&R design and practice, as it affects the comfort, health, and energy efficiency of indoor environments. Chapter 1 of the 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP provides comprehensive and updated information on psychrometrics, including:



  • The definition and explanation of psychrometric terms and concepts, such as dry-bulb temperature, wet-bulb temperature, dew-point temperature, relative humidity, specific humidity, enthalpy, humidity ratio, saturation pressure, vapor pressure, degree of saturation, and more.



  • The derivation and presentation of psychrometric equations and charts for various conditions and units. The chapter includes new psychrometric charts and equations for high-pressure and high-temperature conditions (up to 30 MPa and 2000 K), as well as for low-pressure and low-temperature conditions (down to 0.01 kPa and -100C). The chapter also includes psychrometric charts and equations for mixtures of air and other gases, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and more.



  • The description and calculation of moist air properties and processes, such as sensible heating and cooling, latent heating and cooling, humidification and dehumidification, mixing and blending, adiabatic saturation and cooling, evaporative cooling and heating, and more. The chapter includes updated data and examples for moist air properties and processes, as well as methods and tools for solving psychrometric problems.



Here is an example of a psychrometric chart for high-pressure and high-temperature conditions (up to 30 MPa and 2000 K) that you can find in Chapter 1:



This chart shows the relationship between dry-bulb temperature (Tdb), wet-bulb temperature (Twb), dew-point temperature (Tdp), enthalpy (h), humidity ratio (w), relative humidity (RH), saturation pressure (psat), vapor pressure (pv), degree of saturation (ds), specific volume (v), density (ρ), specific heat (cp), thermal conductivity (k), viscosity (μ), Prandtl number (Pr), Reynolds number (Re), Nusselt number (Nu), heat transfer coefficient (h), friction factor (f), pressure drop (p), and power input (W) for moist air at different pressures (p) ranging from 0.1 MPa to 30 MPa.


Chapter 2: Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Cycles




Thermodynamics is the study of the relationship between heat and work and their effects on matter and energy. Refrigeration cycles are thermodynamic processes that transfer heat from a low-temperature region to a high-temperature region using a working fluid called a refrigerant. Thermodynamics and refrigeration cycles are fundamental for HVAC&R design and practice, as they affect the performance and efficiency of HVAC&R systems and equipment. Chapter 2 of the 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP provides revised and expanded information on thermodynamics and refrigeration cycles, including:



  • The definition and explanation of thermodynamic terms and concepts, such as temperature, pressure, volume, mass, energy, entropy, enthalpy, exergy, work, heat, state, process, cycle, system, surroundings, equilibrium, reversibility, irreversibility, efficiency, coefficient of performance (COP), and more.



  • The derivation and presentation of thermodynamic equations and diagrams for various conditions and units. The chapter includes equations and diagrams for ideal gases, real gases, incompressible substances, mixtures of gases and vapors, and more.



  • The description and calculation of thermodynamic properties and processes, such as internal energy, specific heat, heat capacity, latent heat, sensible heat, heat transfer, work transfer, power, compression, expansion, throttling, mixing, and more. The chapter includes data and examples for thermodynamic properties and processes, as well as methods and tools for solving thermodynamic problems.



  • The analysis and evaluation of refrigeration cycles and refrigerants. The chapter covers various types of refrigeration cycles, such as vapor-compression cycles, absorption cycles, gas cycles, ejector cycles, cascade cycles, multistage cycles, and more. The chapter also covers various types of refrigerants, such as halocarbons, hydrocarbons, ammonia, carbon dioxide, water, air, and more. The chapter includes revised and expanded information on refrigerants and refrigeration cycles, such as new sections on organic Rankine cycles and magnetic refrigeration.



Here is an example of a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle diagram that you can find in Chapter 2:



This diagram shows the basic components and processes of a vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, which is the most common type of refrigeration cycle used in HVAC&R systems and equipment. The cycle consists of four main processes: compression (1-2), condensation (2-3), expansion (3-4), and evaporation (4-1). The cycle also involves a working fluid called a refrigerant, which undergoes phase changes between vapor and liquid states as it absorbs and rejects heat from the low-temperature region (evaporator) and the high-temperature region (condenser). The performance and efficiency of the cycle are measured by the coefficient of performance (COP), which is the ratio of the cooling effect (Qe) to the work input (W).


Chapter 3: Fluid Flow




Fluid flow is the study of the motion and behavior of fluids (liquids and gases) under various conditions and forces. Fluid flow is essential for HVAC&R design and practice, as it affects the transport and distribution of fluids in HVAC&R systems and equipment. Chapter 3 of the 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP provides updated correlations and methods for fluid flow calculations, including:



rotational flow, irrotational flow, and more.


  • The derivation and presentation of fluid flow equations and charts for various conditions and units. The chapter includes equations and charts for fluid properties, fluid statics, fluid dynamics, continuity equation, Bernoulli equation, momentum equation, energy equation, dimensional analysis, similarity laws, pipe flow, duct flow, open channel flow, nozzle flow, orifice flow, venturi flow, meter flow, fan flow, pump flow, and more.



  • The description and calculation of fluid flow phenomena and applications, such as laminar and turbulent boundary layers, drag and lift forces, flow separation and reattachment, flow measurement devices, flow control devices, flow distribution systems, fan and pump selection and operation, fan and pump laws, fan and pump curves, system curves, fan and pump efficiency and power, fan and pump noise and vibration, and more. The chapter includes updated data and examples for fluid flow phenomena and applications, as well as methods and tools for solving fluid flow problems.



  • New content on nanofluids and microchannel heat exchangers. Nanofluids are fluids that contain nanoparticles (particles with sizes in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers) that enhance the thermal conductivity and heat transfer performance of the fluids. Microchannel heat exchangers are heat exchangers that have channels with hydraulic diameters in the range of 10 to 200 micrometers that enhance the heat transfer coefficient and compactness of the heat exchangers. The chapter provides information on the properties, characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, challenges, and applications of nanofluids and microchannel heat exchangers.



Here is an example of a fan curve that you can find in Chapter 3:



This curve shows the relationship between the fan pressure (Pf), fan power (Wf), fan efficiency (ηf), fan speed (N), air density (ρ), air flow rate (Q), system pressure (Ps), system resistance (R), operating point (O), best efficiency point (BEP), surge point (S), stall point (ST), choke point (C), and fan laws for a centrifugal fan. The curve helps to select and operate the fan according to the desired performance and efficiency.


Chapter 4: Heat Transfer




Heat transfer is the study of the transfer of thermal energy between physical systems due to temperature difference. Heat transfer is fundamental for HVAC&R design and practice, as it affects the heating and cooling of indoor environments and HVAC&R systems and equipment. Chapter 4 of the 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP provides enhanced coverage of heat transfer fundamentals and applications, including:



  • The definition and explanation of heat transfer terms and concepts, such as temperature, heat, thermal energy, thermal equilibrium, thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, heat flux, heat rate, heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer modes, conduction, convection, radiation, and more.



  • The derivation and presentation of heat transfer equations and charts for various conditions and units. The chapter includes equations and charts for steady-state and transient conduction, lumped capacitance method, finite difference method, finite element method, analytical solutions, numerical solutions, convection correlations, forced convection, natural convection, mixed convection, radiation properties, radiation exchange between surfaces, radiation view factors, and more.



  • The description and calculation of heat transfer phenomena and applications, such as heat conduction in solids, heat convection in fluids, heat radiation between surfaces, heat transfer in porous media, heat transfer in phase change processes, heat transfer in HVAC&R systems and equipment, heat transfer enhancement techniques, heat transfer measurement techniques, and more. The chapter includes updated data and examples for heat transfer phenomena and applications, as well as methods and tools for solving heat transfer problems.



  • New topics on thermal radiation, phase change materials, and heat pipes. Thermal radiation is the emission and absorption of electromagnetic waves by matter due to its temperature. Phase change materials are materials that absorb or release large amounts of latent heat during phase transitions between solid and liquid states. Heat pipes are devices that transfer heat from a hot region to a cold region using a working fluid that undergoes phase changes inside a sealed tube. The chapter provides information on the principles, characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, challenges, and applications of thermal radiation, phase change materials, and heat pipes.



Here is an example of a radiation network analysis that you can find in Chapter 4:



This analysis shows the radiation exchange between three gray surfaces (1, 2, and 3) that form an enclosure. The analysis uses a radiation network that consists of nodes (N1, N2, N3) and resistances (R12, R13, R23) to represent the surfaces and their radiative interactions. The analysis also uses the radiosity method to calculate the net radiation heat flux (q) at each surface using the surface temperatures (T1, T2, T3), surface emissivities (ε1, ε2, ε3), surface areas (A1, A2, A3), and view factors (F12, F13, F23).


Conclusion




In this article, we have introduced you to the 2017 edition of the ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals IP, which includes a CD-ROM that contains both IP (inch-pound) and SI (International System) units. We have explained what ASHRAE is, what the ASHRAE Handbook is, what a


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